Additional information about diskutil and other uses can be found in Introduction to Command-Line Administration. The specific command issued depends on your disk format needs and the hardware in use. Take care to use command-line arguments that apply to your specific needs. You can combine RAID sets to combine their benefits. Drag the disks to the window. Follow the instructions in the window to set parameters. Click Create. You can find instructions for partitioning the hard disk into multiple volumes, creating a RAID set, and erasing the target disk or partition by viewing Disk Utility Help.
Erasing a Disk or Partition You have several options for erasing a disk, depending on your preferred tools and your computing environment: Erasing a disk using Disk Utility: After installation is complete, the target server restarts and you can perform initial server setup. Administrator computer This allows you to remotely control preparation of the target disk or partition before beginning installation.
For information about page. Installing Multiple Servers Most Efficient Methods of Installation The most efficient method of installation would be completely automated. However, scripting the command-line tool using known values for server IP addresses, for example to automate multiple simultaneous installations can be very efficient.
Perform a clean installation instead. The server can operate in three different configurations: After installing server software, the next task is to set up the server. There are several ways to set up a server: Set up servers interactively. Network names are defined. Directory Utility lets you set up connections to other non-Apple directory systems and specify a search policy the order in which the server should search through the domains.
Setting Up a Server as a Standalone Server A standalone server stores and accesses account information in its local directory domain. To interactively connect to an additional directory server: The following illustration shows target servers on the same subnet as the administrator computer in one scenario and target servers on a different subnet in the other scenario. Both setup scenarios can be used to set up servers on the same and different subnets. The automatic approach is useful when you: You can define generic setup data that can be used to set up any server.
Before a server sets itself up using encrypted setup data, it must have access to the passphrase used when the data was encrypted. For interactive setup, the passphrase is entered using Server Assistant during setup. If you want to store the password for non-interactive setup, the file containing the passphrase file should be named the same as the saved setup data. If setup data is encrypted, the server needs the correct passphrase before setting itself up.
You can use Server Assistant to supply the passphrase interactively, or you can supply the passphrase in a file containing the passphrase in the same folder as the corresponding auto setup profile but with a. To use setup data from a file remotely: Create the folder for the setup file on the remote server. Connect to the remote server. Handling Setup Errors When a server encounters a setup problem, Server Assistant shows a description of the setup error, and gives some opportunity to either fix it or try again.
If you are setting up the target server remotely, you are given the option to share its screen and interact via the Server Assistant.
Select a server, click the Settings button in the toolbar, and then click the Services tab. Select the checkbox for each service you want to turn on. From the command-line: Ongoing System Management This chapter shows you how to complete ongoing management for your systems, including setting up administrator computers, designating administrators, and maintaining service uptime. Mac OS X Server using command-line tools.
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Mac OS X v However, after you edit a user record using Workgroup Manager on v Port number and type 22 TCP Server Admin also lets you specify settings that support multiple services, such as creating and managing SSL certificates and specifying which users and groups can access services. If a server in the Servers list appears gray, double-click the server or click the Connect button in the toolbar to log in again. Select Add Smart Group. Name the smart group. Define the criteria that servers will appear in the list and click OK. The group appears in the Server list. SSH must be enabled while creating an Open Directory replica, but it can be disabled afterwards.
Server-side file tracking for mobile home-sync is a feature of mobile home folders. Network pane: DNS name. If the server is a DNS server, use the tool records. Mobile Access Proxy Services Most proxy services should remain relatively unaffected by a change to IP address or domain name. If you have edited the com. You are responsible for replacing references to the DNS name and address if used in your databases. For the most part, changing the network address or DNS name of a file server has no internal affect on file services. The file service processes monitor network interfaces for changes and adapt as necessary without administrator intervention.
No further configuration is required. Address Book Service Changing the IP address of an Address Book server does not affect new connections to the server; however, it can disconnect existing client connections. You might need regenerate or repurchase the certificates. To change the IP address of the Podcast Producer computer: However, the following guidelines for the server should be followed.
Print Print service needs no changes if the IP address changes. If the DNS name changes, the administrator must restart print service to re-register the service with Bonjour to publish the name change. The local hostname is a domain name, usable only on the local network, and is published to other services which are Bonjour-aware. You can use the command-line tool to set the local hostname and local scutil hostname. For more information, see the man page. To change computer name and local hostname: Adding and Removing Services in Server Admin Server Admin can only show you the services you are administering, hiding all other service configuration panes until needed.
Before you can administer a service, it must be enabled for the specific server; then that service appears under the server name in the main Server list. Controlling Access to Services You can use Server Admin to configure which users and groups can use services hosted by a server. You set up access to services to users and groups using SACLs.
You can set up the same access to all services, or you can select a service and customize its access settings. Managing Sharing To work with share points and access control lists, click the File Sharing icon in the Server Admin toolbar. Chapter 7 Ongoing System Management The following is the File Sharing configuration pane in Server Admin.
Admin users could make any change to the settings of any service or change any directory data including passwords and password policies. For example, some services are hidden or the Settings pane is dimmed when you can only monitor that service. Because the feature is enforced on the server side, the permissions also impact the usage of serveradmin, dscl, dsimport, and pwpolicy command-line tools because these tools are limited to the permissions configured for the administrator in use. The following topics describe general Workgroup Manager usage.
The following is a sample user record configuration pane in Workgroup Manager: When you use other Workgroup Manager windows, such as Preferences, click Accounts in the toolbar to return to the account window. To specify the directories that store accounts you want to work with, click the small globe icon. Defining Managed Preferences To work with managed preferences for user accounts, group accounts, or computer lists, click the Preferences icon in the Workgroup Manager toolbar.
Click Details to use the preference editor to work with preference manifests. The following is a sample of the preference editor sheet in Workgroup Manager: The following is the record Inspector pane in Workgroup Manager: To display the inspector: Mail—Amavisd File type Configuration files Data: A single point of failure is any component in your server environment that, if it fails, causes your server to fail. You can set the Server Monitor software to alert you if error rates exceed the defined threshold. For more information about Xserve, visit www. Using Backup Power In the architecture of a server solution, power is a single point of failure.
If power goes out, your servers go down without warning.
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To prevent a sudden disruption in services, consider adding a backup source of power. Depending on your application, you might choose to use a standby electrical generator or Uninterruptible Power Supply UPS devices to gain enough time to notify users of an impending shutdown of services. The automatic restart options are: Restart automatically after a power failure.
Restart automatically if the computer freezes. Link Aggregation Although not common, the failure of a switch, cable, or network interface card can cause your server to become unavailable. To eliminate these single points of failure, you can use link aggregation or trunking. This technology, also known as IEEE When your define a link aggregate, the nodes on each side of the aggregate for example, a computer and a switch use LACP over each physical link to: Determine whether the link can be aggregated Computer to Switch In this scenario shown in the following illustration, you connect your server to a switch configured for For example, you can connect two links to the master switch and the remaining links to the backup switch.
As long as the master switch is active, the backup switch remains inactive. If the master switch fails, the backup switch takes over transparently. Although this scenario adds redundancy that protects the server from becoming unavailable if the switch fails, it results in decreased bandwidth. The interface name is for use at the command line, but the port configuration name is for use in the Network pane of System Preferences.
Load Balancing One factor that can cause services to become unavailable is server overload. A server has limited resources and can service a limited number of requests simultaneously.
If the server gets overloaded, it slows down and can eventually crash. One way to overcome this problem is to distribute the load among a group of servers a server farm using a third-party load-balancing device. The configuration files are plist files stored in the LaunchAgents and LaunchDaemons subdirectories of the Library folders.
For more information about creating the launchd configuration files, see the following Developer Documentation page: The launchctl utility is the command-line tool used to control launchd. It can: Monitoring Your System Effective monitoring allows you to detect potential problems before they occur and gives you early warning when they occur. Detecting potential problems allows you to take steps to resolve them before they impact server availability of your servers.
In addition, getting an early warning when a problem occurs allows you to take corrective action quickly and minimize disruption to your services. Several factors can be considered for a monitoring response: What are relevant response methods? What is the time to response? What are the scaling considerations? A green status indicator shows the component is OK, a yellow status indicator notes a warning, and a red status indicator notes an error. Server Monitor works for Xserves only. This tells you that you should act immediately to free space on your hard disk before it fills up and causes problems for your users.
There is less than a specified percentage of free space left on any system hard disk. The following shows a sample Overview pane for a single server. This overview shows basic hardware, operating system versions, active services, and graphs of CPU history, network throughput history, and disk space. For more information on debugging core dumps see Developer Technical Note at developer. The core dump server uses a daemon to collect the kernel core dump from the client and writes it to a file on the hard disk. Using the command line, type: This step does not need to be repeated when the server restarts.
Options tab of the Energy Saver System Preferences pane. For more information about the arguments and options, see the man page. To specify a network router To change the location of the core dump directory, change the expected directory location in the com. To enable and configure SNMP: You should see location you provided. This is not recommended because syslogd does not use secure means to send log messages across the net. Logs for the OS can be found in: Each process or application can write its own log file or use a system standard log, like syslog.
Each line has the following format: For example, the setting for the kernel is: Third-party client applications may support it. From the list of administered services for the desired server, select Push Notification. From the command line: You can use these instructions to specify a different server. See Apple Remote Desktop See iChat service ClamAV clients certificates See mail service emond daemon encryption 54, 55, 59, See also SSL Ethereal packet sniffing tool Ethernet 53, , exporting service settings Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol.
See XMPP file services 22, , file sharing file systems backing up See RADIUS remote servers accessing 88 Apple Remote Desktop 50, , identifying 90 installing from or to 84, 88, 90, , startup disk replication 57, requirements Server Admin access control as administration tool authentication 38 certificates 62, configuration methods 18 customizing 40 notification system opening 38 overview 11, 18, 38, 39 server status service management system imaging 47 Server Assistant 41, , , Server Message Block.
Page of Go. Page 32 - Understanding Backup and Restore Policie Page 37 Page 38 - Chapter 3: Page - Installing Remotely with Server Assistan Page - Installing Remotely with Screen Sharing Page - Using the installer Command-Line Tool to Page - Chapter 6: Mac OS X Server. Table of Contents Add to my manuals Add. Previous page. Next page. Chapters Table Of Contents Mail service administration for version Java application server administration for version File services administration for version Windows services administration for version System image administration for version System imaging and software update administration second edition 89 pages.
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Page 3: Table Of Contents Contents Preface: Page 7 Chapter 7: Page 9 Chapter 9: Page 10 Contents Page Document Road Map The road map below shows some related documentation that you may need to fully configure your desired service to your specifications. Chapter 1: Page 19 The following table highlights the capabilities of each configuration tool. Page 21 Kerberos password server to provide directory and authentication services to Mac, Windows, and Linux clients.
Chapter 2: Page 30 For example, if you use Mac OS X Server to provide DHCP, network time, or BootP services to other servers, you should set up the servers that provide these services and initiate the services before you set up servers that depend on those services. Understanding Backup Types Your organization must determine the following: Other Backup Policy Considerations Consider the following questions: Chapter 3: Workgroup Manager Interface Workgroup Manager Interface The Workgroup Manager interface is shown here, with each element explained in the following table.
Page 45 To identify the Xserve computer to monitor, click Add Server, identify the server, and enter user name and password information for an administrator of the server. Podcast Capture, Composer, And Producer Podcast Capture, Composer, and Producer Podcast Capture takes audio and video from a local or remote camera, captures screen activity, or uploads QuickTime files into Podcast Producer for encoding and distribution. Chapter 4: About Network Security About Network Security Network security is as important to data integrity as physical security.
Vlans This allows an organization to provide services to the external network while protecting the internal network from being compromised by a host in the DMZ. Transport Encryption In theory, MAC filtering allows a network administrator to permit or deny network access to hosts and devices associated with the MAC address, although in practice there are methods to avoid this form of access control through address modification spoofing or the physical exchange of network cards between hosts.
Secure Delete Secure VM: The Reality of Virtualization 4. How virtualization works 4. Benefits of virtualization 4. Flexibility in testing servers 4. Server consolidation 4. Faster, easier deployment and disaster recovery 4. Virtualizing Windows clients on Macs 4. Virtual appliances 4. Software licensing issues 4.
Choosing Virtualization Software 4. Choosing a desktop virtualization package 4. When you might use Parallels Server 4. Real and Virtual Hardware Requirements 4. Memory 4. Processors 4. Drive storage 4. Installing an OS in a Virtual Machine 4. Installing an OS in a desktop version 4. Installing an OS in Parallels Server 4. Distributing services in multiple VMs II.
Creating and Maintaining User Accounts and Directories 5. Controlling Access with Directories 5. Defining Directories 5. Local and shared directories and domains 5.
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Account types in a directory 5. Binding Clients and Servers to Directories 5. LDAP is the phone book 5. Kerberos and single sign-on 6. Setting Up Open Directory 6. Introducing Open Directory 6. Think Before You Jump: Planning for an Open Directory Deployment 6. Starting an Open Directory checklist 6. Master, replica, and relay servers 6. Open Directory masters 6.
Open Directory replicas 6. Open Directory relays 6. Server connected to a directory, but not hosting one 6. Prerequisites 6. Checking for proper DNS setup 6. Synchronizing time for Kerberos reliability 6. Enabling time server synchronization 6. Creating an Open Directory master with Server Preferences 6. Importing directory information with Server Preferences 6.
Working with Server Admin 6. Connecting to an existing directory using Server Admin 6. Creating an Open Directory master 6. Attack of the clones: Creating Open Directory replica servers 6.
Creating an archive in Server Admin 6. Restoring from an archive 6. Binding Clients to the Shared Domain 6. Binding Mac OS X Binding Windows clients 7. Integrating Open Directory with Active Directory 7. Doing the Directory Services Two-Step 7. Binding Your Server to Active Directory 7. Checking DNS configuration 7. Binding the server 7. Deciding whether to Muck Around with Advanced Configuration 7.
Managing User Groups with Workgroup Manager 7. Serving Up Files and Printers 8. Controlling Access to Files and Folders 8. Owner, Group, and Others Everyone 8. Owners 8. Groups 8. Everyone, Others, and Guests 8. Permission Schemes: Inherit permissions from parent 8. Access Control Lists 8. ACL permissions 8. ACL inheritance 8. Allow and Deny permissions 8. Using inherited and explicit ACEs together 8. Rules of Precedence 8. Controlling Access to Protocols 9. Setting Up File Sharing 9. Turning on file sharing with Server Preferences 9. Sharing a folder with Server Preferences 9.
Changing user access to a shared folder 9. Protocol Soup: File-sharing protocols 9. Security in file-sharing protocols 9. Creating a share point with Server Admin 9. Assigning file-sharing protocols to a share point 9. Setting permissions for a share point 9. Setting SACL permissions for limiting access to protocols 9. Configuring AFP for Mac users 9. Configuring AFP 9. AFP's Access settings 9.
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AFP's Idle Users settings 9. Configuring AFP guest access for individual share points 9. Configuring SMB for Windows users 9. Configuring SMB 9. General tab: Advanced tab: WINS registration, enabling virtual share points 9. Changing SMB file-locking settings for individual share points 9. Configuring FTP service 9. FTP authentication and anonymous users 9. Turning on and starting FTP service 9. Configuring FTP 9. The General tab: Security and limiting the number of FTP users 9. The FTP Advanced tab: Adjusting the FTP root 9. Configuring NFS for Unix clients 9. Turning on and starting NFS service 9.
Exporting and configuring an NFS share point 9. Selecting a share point for NFS 9. Specifying client computers for access 9. Selecting authentication Sharing Printers Over a Network A Second Helping of Protocol Soup: Communicating with the printer Communicating with the client Paving the Way to Painless Printing Before you start: Set up your printers Turning on and starting print service Setting up print queues Creating a printer pool Setting print quotas Publishing a printer to Open Directory Don't Forget Your Clients PPD files Enabling printer discovery Helping Mac clients print Helping Windows clients print Facilitating User Collaboration Sharing Contacts with Address Book Server Clients for Address Book Server A Prerequisite Turning on Address Book Server Enabling users to search directories with Address Book using Directory Gateway SSL and Authentication Sharing Calendars with iCal Server Clients for iCal Server Setting Up the Network for iCal Server Directory service for iCal service Setting up DNS for iCal service Using Admin Server for Administration Changing iCal Server's default settings Enabling e-mail notification Creating Schedule Resources and Locations Supporting iCal 4 Clients Adding an iCal Server account to an iCal client Creating another server-based calendar using an iCal client Setting a delegate using iCal client Hosting Web Sites and Wikis The Prequel The Automatically Created Web Site Navigating My Page Creating a personal wiki Navigating a group wiki page Editing the built-in Web site Administering a wiki site from a browser Changing the site theme, name, and contact Turning blogs, calendars, mailing lists, and podcasts on and off Wiki calendars Blogs and podcasts Creating and using a mail list for the wiki Defining user permissions and site administrators The sidebar setting Configuring virtual hosts Server Preferences versus Server Admin Managing Web Services with Server Preferences Turning wikis, calendars, blogs, and Webmail on and off Creating a group wiki Changing the default home page Adding Web Sites with Server Preferences Running into DNS problems Configuring Web Services with Server Admin Creating one or more Web sites Using Server Admin for wikis, blogs, calendars, and Webmail Aliases and redirects Server aliases versus URL aliases and redirects Configuring aliases and redirects Tuning performance of your Web server More Services Running an E-Mail Server Growing Your Own E-Mail Mail protocols Mail service and the Internet: DNS MX records Relay servers Mail tools: Setting up mail with Server Preferences Turning on and starting Mail service with Server Admin Using Configuration Assistant to configure mail service Configuring e-mail with Server Admin's Settings window Turning on DNS service Creating an MX record Creating a DNS machine record for the Mail server E-Mail Security with Server Admin Securing mail authentication Securing e-mail messages with SSL Blocking Spam and Other Nasty Bits Statistical spam filtering Spam filtering exceptions by country or language Virus filtering Configuring User Accounts for E-Mail Setting Up a Mailing List More Collaboration: Clients for iChat Server Prerequisites Turning on iChat service Changing iChat service's default settings Adding host domains Security and authentication Saving and archiving chat messages Server-to-server federation Turning autobuddy support on and off Podcast Producer New features What's in Podcast Producer Turning on and setting up Podcast Producer service